Sultan Ahmed Mosque
Heritage,  History,  Islamic,  Muslim Heritage

The Ottoman Empire-Part1

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The origins of the Turks is a chapter by itself. As far as 6500 BC, there is history. One thing is Turkey the Country and Turks as a race. They appeared in world stage as far as 2000 BC and mention Oghuz Khan as one of their great rulers and noble persons. One of the greatest pre-Islamic empires was: The GokTurk Khanate.

At first, I thought it was Go Turk! It is Gokturk.  There is umlaut on the O. Umlaut is from German two dots on the letter O.

The Gokturks were called “Celestial Turks” and they claim their ancestry from the Ashina clan. There is a story of their great grandmother being a she wolf. The she wolf had given refuge to a boy. The pair gave birth to half human and half wolf being who happens to be ancestor of the GokTurks.  The fictional series by Mehmet Bozdag(Turkish Film Director) called Destan is about time of GokTurks and the Turks introduction to Islam in the 8th Century.

Altai Mounatins

Altai Mounatins

Altai Mountains in Mongolia

Altai Mountains

Altai Mountains

Where Turks originally come from?

The earliest Turks came from the Altai Mountains in Siberia, Kazaksthan and Mongolia.

The Turks originated from  Yafith(AS)  or Japeth who was one of the sons of Prophet Nuh(AS). Known to Westerners as Noah. One of the sons of Yafith was  called Turk

Originally, they come from a region near Altai Mountains and Lake Baikal near Mongolia. The earliest mention of the Turks is by Chinese records some 4000 years ago. They were referred as Hsuing-nu or Huns as the west calls them. The origin of the word Turk were given by the Chinese as T’u Küe. To the Turks Gok turks called themselves Gok Turks or Sky Turks. The Gok Turks believed in Tengri as this was chief among the Pantheon. Their empire was called Gok Khanate, which lasted from 439 CE to 744 CE after they were conquered by the Tang dynasty and revolt of Ulghyurs. The Turkish people share many language similarities with Koreans and Japanese as they are of same language group: Altaic language Group.

The Ottoman Empire

It all began with Mongol’s oppression and ravaging of various lands. The notable being taking of Baghdad: The seat of Muslim Caliphate.

Suleyman Shah with his Kayi tribe moved to Anatolia region but this happened since the 10th century from time. This is they were looking for a place to stay. Before them came the Seljuks who had already made a name and state. The most famous of the Seljuks being Alp Arslan who defeated the Byzantine emperor in battle of Manzikert. The Seljuks are great story themselves. The Seljuks came from the Kinik tribe. Both Kayi and Kinik tribes were from the 24 sons of Oghuz Khan.  

To understand Turkish history you have to know Oghuz Khan and his legends. If you were descended from Oghuz khan, you automatically had a claim to leadership and nobody usually opposed that much

Ertugrul the 2nd Son great military achievements brought him and his tribe favour. The Kayii tribe was the most respected of the Turkish tribes and came from one of the sons of Oghuz Khan.  Oghuz Khan lived some 4000 years ago and was great warrior and leader according to Turkish Legends. As with Eastern culture, most of history is told through songs and stories and not much documented books or writing exist on Ertugrul.

The West always looks for document as evidence, otherwise it did not happen or exist. For example, in Muslim culture before the British arrived, if somebody wanted to give a land. He just said it , ”I give you this land”. That’s it and it was not given. None of the relatives or inheritors would ever demand this land back. The British in India said you need documents otherwise the event did not happen at all. This is in contrast to Eastern and Muslim culture where a word is enough in presence of a witness. This is the reason documented books are not available on may persons. The West says in this case the thing is fabricated. They do not say this when referring to Aesop’s fables which was got from Greek culture, about 4000 years ago. How do we know (using Western argument) the tortoise really won or not?

Topkapi Palace-Indica Collection
Topkapi Palace-Indica Collection

Ottoman Empire

Reign:1299-1922

founded by Osman

Area in zenith:7.6 million Square Miles.

Muslim Empire Ruled for :6 centuries

Osmani Empire.

Last Ruler in Power:

Sultan Abdul Hamid II

Known as :

Osmanoğlu

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Ertugrul-Great Warrior

Ertugrul had three sons (according to Wikipedia and series by Mehmet Bozdag). They were :

  • Savci Bey
  • Gunduz Bey
  • Osman

Osman was the youngest and he lay the foundations of an empire which his father had outlined. This is the reason the empire was named after Osman Gazi.  Gazi actually was not his name.                                                                                                                         

It was title meaning Islamic warrior. Otherwise, he was called Osman Bey. But Bey is a title giving to tribe leader. 

This is like in Bangladesh a village chief called matabor. The surname of the chief and his sons becomes matbor even though it is just a title. As is the Bey.

Osman Gazi

Osman Gazi left behind foundations of an Empire called Osmani . This was after Seljuks came as a mere vassal sate of the Mongols. Todays ‘s term ,they were just front ends of the Mongol.

He was called as Kara Osman or Dark Osman. The empire was left to his youngest son :Orhan Gazi.

Turkish Coffee
Marble Palace
Mosque roof-Turkey
Ottoman Flag
Baklava

Balkava-a sweet which very sweet and delicious from Turkey

Turkish Coffee
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Marble Palace
Masjid-Turkey
Ottoman Flag
Baklava-indicacollection
Coffee-Indica Collection
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Area in Zenith

The total rea covered in the zenith of the empire was :7.6 million square miles. That was in 1595. This at the time of Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent”

The Ottoman Sultans from Osman to Abdul Hamid are shown below:

 

Ottoman Sultans

1299 Foundation of Ottoman Empire
Osman Gazi

Osman Gazi or Osman 1 was the youngest son of Ertugrul. The Muslim Turkish warrior who made an outline for the Ottoman Empire.  Osman was a leader or bey of a small province of the Seljuks, in Byzantine area.

1324 Continuation of Conquests
Orhan Gazi

Orhan Gazi ,son of Osman Gazi converted the Ottoman Principality into a State. Orhan's paternal and maternal grandfathers  were Muslim warriors who had great achievements in  military conquests.

1326 Sultanate
Murad Han

Sultan Murad was one of the Ottoman Sultans ,ascended the throne in 1360.he was the son Of Orhan Gazi. He established the sultanate. Sultan Murad was also called Murad Han". The administrative offices of Military judge aother offices were established by him.  Sultan Murad died in abbtle field. He aws killed by Serb Knight wanting to meet.

 

1451 Conqueror of Constantinopole
Mehmed the Conqueror

Mehmed the Conqueror took Constantinople in 1453. He was just 20 years old and he was passionate in conquering this 1000 year old Byzantine city. This city is known as Istanbul.

1520 The Greatest of Ottoman Sultans
Suleiman the Magnificent

Suleyman the Magnificent was one the greatest Sultan of the Ottoman empire.

His father was Selim I,and was born in Trazborn. He grew up in Topkapi place in Istanbul.

1876 Last Caliph with Power
Abdul Hamid

Abdul Hamid came in 1876 to the throne. At a a time Ottoman Empire was in debts. He was last real caliph of Islam. He was forced to abdicate by the "Young Turks" and refusal to bend. A TV series on his life is shown:

Payitaht Abdul Hamid.

 

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Map of Piri Reis

map of Piri Reis

The achievements of the Ottoman Empire:

  • The invention of surgical forceps, scalpels, catherters(currently used)
  • 1st Coffee house
  • mechanical astronomical clock by Taqi al din.
  • Piri Reis-prominent Ottoman Admiral who made achievements in cartography. He fought many battles with his uncle Kemal Reis under Sultan Selim I.Piri Reis actually worked under Ottoman admiral Barbaros Hayreddin Pasa.  This admiral was   called Hizir and along with his brother Oruc and Elias placed the Ottomans in a strong position in the Mediterrean. He wrote a book called Kitab-i-Bahriye which later presented to Vizer of Sultan Suleyman. The Turkish series Barbaroslar shows life story of these great men.
  •  
similar to Taqi al din's watch

The Ottoman Connection with India

The Ottoman Empire did not have any strong connection with the then Mughal Empire. Though mutually they both were sunni Muslims empires. The distance between the capitals and the Safavid Empire did not have any strong agreement.

The Nawabs of Arcot had with the Ottoman Empire due to some business relations.

 

Marriage of House of Osman and House of Asaf Jah in India.

The Nizam of Hyderabad had two of his sons married to Ottoman Princesses. Princess Durrushehvar was married to Azam Jah son of Nizam of Hyderabad. She was daughter of last Ottoman ruler and Caliph of Muslim world:Abul Majid II. Her cousin also married another son of the Nizam.  He then was one of  the richest man in the world. The Asif Jah family was originally Turkic since they came orginally from Samarkand ,Uzbekistan.

Food of Ottoman Empire

Mutcana
Pilac Topkapi
Vezir Parmağı
Hünkar Beğendi
Düğün Çorbası
Demerhindi serbeti

The Ottoman Empire known not only for its might but also the food. Even to this day Turkish kebabs ,Shwarma and other food are quite popular.

Some of the foods during Ottoman Empire:

  • Pilac Topkapi-stuffed chicken with spices
  • Vezir Parmagi-cake like pastry made of semolina.
  • Demirhindi Şerbeti-Tamarind juice ,which french called ‘sorbet’
  • Mutancana-Favourite dish of Sultan Mehmet.  A dish made with lamb, honey ,dried fruits,almonds and other spices. Now you know where Sultans got the energy’.

 

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Many quotes are there from Sultan Mehmet the Conqueror and we have given one of them below.

 

Link

Though there were faults with the Ottoman empire but overall it was a great empire. 

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A well travelled writer from Indian sub continent.

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